Early Learning Assessments
Kindergarten Readiness Assessment (KRA)
The Ohio Department of Education requires public school districts and community schools to administer the Kindergarten Readiness Assessment (KRA) to all first-time
kindergarten students. Do not administer the KRA to any student retained in kindergarten.
Teachers begin administering the KRA to kindergarten students starting the first day of school or the first day that schools and districts take attendance with the administration ending on Nov. 1. Based on the budget bill that passed on June 30, public districts may administer the selected response and performance task items of the KRA up to two weeks prior to the first day of the school year. Know that teachers should administer the observational items of the KRA once children are engaging in regular classroom routines. Please refer to the Teacher Administration Manual for further guidance regarding item type.
Teachers assess all first-time kindergarteners with the Kindergarten Readiness Assessment and enter assessment data in the online Ready for Kindergarten system (KReady)
by Nov. 1. Late transfers still need to be assessed if there is no data in the system for the student, unless the student is repeating kindergarten.
A student who transfers from out of state before Nov. 1 also is assessed unless the student is repeating kindergarten.
Educators who administer the assessment must:
- Be employed by the student’s school or district;
- Hold a valid Ohio Department of Education-issued permit, license or certificate; and
- Have successfully completed the required Kindergarten Readiness Assessment training.
The Department strongly recommends that each student’s primary classroom teacher or another teacher who has regular contact with the student(s) (e.g., an intervention specialist or reading specialist) administer the assessment.
Kindergarten teachers who have never completed training on the KRA must successfully complete the state-required training to prepare for the 2017 KRA administration. State Support Team KRA trainers and a small number of local district trainers schedule and deliver the KRA trainings. Teachers will need to register in STARS
to secure a spot for training. Search using the Keyword term KRA
KRA Training Required for Kindergarten Teachers
Educators who administer the assessment must (1) be employed by the student’s school or district, (2) hold a valid Ohio Department of Education-issued permit, license or certificate, and (3) have successfully completed the required Kindergarten Readiness Assessment training. The Department strongly recommends that each student’s primary classroom teacher or another teacher who has regular contact with the student(s) (e.g., an intervention specialist or reading specialist) administer the assessment.
Untrained kindergarten teachers must successfully complete the state-required training for KRA. Kindergarten teachers who have successfully completed the KRA training in 2014-2015, 2015-2016 or 2016-2017 are not required to take any additional training to administer the KRA during the 2017-2018 school year. They may however opt to attend a one-day refresher training.
The Ohio Department of Education requires all Kindergarten teachers to review a new brief online module
to learn about the 2017 administration of the Kindergarten Field Test and the KRA.
Not previously trained - One of the following required to administer KRA in fall 2017:
Previously trained - Not required of any teacher, but available:
- Option 1: Kindergarten Readiness Assessment Two-Day Training. This required training consists of two days of in-person training for NEW kindergarten teachers who have never been trained on the KRA.
- Option 2: Kindergarten Readiness Assessment Hybrid Training. This required training consists of a one-day, in-person training followed by approximately 10 hours of online work on your own and is for NEW kindergarten teachers who have never been trained on the KRA.
- Kindergarten Readiness Assessment Refresher. This optional training consists of one-day, in-person training and is intended for teachers who have already completed KRA training in a previous year.
State Support Team KRA trainers and a small number of local district trainers schedule and deliver KRA trainings. Teachers will need to register in STARS to secure a spot for training. Search using the Keyword term KRA.
Kindergarten Field Test and other KRA Updates: NEW Online Module
To fully understand the 2017 administration of the KRA and the Kindergarten Field Test a new module is available online here
. In the Ohio KRA 2017 Field Test & Implementation module
, participants will:
What does this mean for my school?
- Learn about the Kindergarten Field Test and what it means
- Get a glimpse inside Ohio’s Early Childhood Comprehensive Assessment System development process
- Explore the Kindergarten Field Test items and revised observational rubrics
- Review the materials teachers will receive along with handling procedures and test security requirements
- Review the field test-specific features of the Ready for Kindergarten online system
- Review the features of the new KRA App
- Learn about the new instant ISR creation feature that will be available throughout the administration window
- The materials for your designated field test form will arrive via postal mail to your school. Every teacher at your school will receive the same form so that distributing forms will be easy. Your form items will also be in the Ready for Kindergarten Online (KReady) system when you log in.
- Teachers administer 4-5 new KRA items to all students in their class, in addition to the current KRA.
- All items for the field test need to be administered and entered into the KReady system during the same window as the KRA.
- Each teacher must account for all test materials and follow procedures for ensuring the destruction of all documentation, notes, manipulatives, booklets, manuals, etc.
Teachers will need to make sure that the assigned form in the KReady system matches the print form received by mail.
If the form doesn't match the system,
- Make sure the data collection link has the correct form number listed as the print materials.
- Click on that data collection link and scan the items listed to make sure they also match.
assume what is in the KReady system is correct and let us know through this link: KRA 2017 Field Test – Materials Request Form
All versions of Chrome are compatible with the content and simulation assessment teachers complete during the KRA training including Chromebooks. Chrome or Firer-fox browsers are the supported browsers for Chromebooks when teachers access the content and simulator assessments. The browser is more important than the device itself.
Chromebooks use a web app version for the selected assessment items that can be administered and scored by the KRA app for students. Review the KRA Technology Guidelines
KRA Administration Materials
Please destroy the 2014-2015 KRA administration materials because they are no longer in use. Please ensure your current 2015-2016 and/or 2016-2017 KRA administration materials are securely stored as they will be used again for the fall 2017 administration
. Some schools and districts might need additional or new administration materials for the upcoming school year.
Please fill out this 2017 Kindergarten Readiness Assessment Order Form
to order replacement Kindergarten Readiness Assessment Kits for trained teachers. Tests are secure materials. Programs must file a Test Destruction Form
to report destroyed kits.
Kindergarten Readiness Assessment Kits include the following:
Kindergarten Readiness Assessment Teacher Administration Manual
This manual contains:
Kindergarten Readiness Assessment Observational Teacher Administration Manual
- Mathematics and Language & Literacy selected response and performance task items
- Scripted directions to help ensure proper assessment procedures
- Scoring Information
This manual contains
Kindergarten Readiness Assessment Manipulatives
- Language & Literacy, Social Foundations, and Physical Development & Well-Being observational rubric items
This booklet contains
Not included in the Kit:
- Spiral bound Mathematics and Language & Literacy test item images
- Mathematics and Language & Literacy card-stock manipulatives
KRA Universal Design
- A pencil and a blank sheet of paper (8.5” x 11”), one per child, for Items 28 and 29
- Item score sheets (also available to teachers in KReady online system)
- Guidelines on Allowable Supports for Administration of the Kindergarten Readiness Assessment (also available to teachers in KReady online system)
Although students identified with significant cognitive disabilities are exempt from the requirements outlined in the Third Grade Reading Guarantee, they are not exempt from the KRA. A fully accessible approach to assessment design and implementation is necessary for students with diverse learning skills to ensure that they can demonstrate their knowledge and abilities. Please review the KRA Guidelines for Allowable Supports
found on our webpage here
. Teachers should follow the child’s instructional team recommendations for any or all supports on a child-by-child basis, and check the individualized education program (IEP) for any accommodations and/or modifications.
Teachers provide a score of 0, or N (not yet evident), if the item is accessible to the student but the student does not reply/chooses not to reply/replies incorrectly/does not demonstrate the skill. Teachers provide a score of “Not Scorable” if the item is not accessible to the student even after allowable supports. Even with supports, some students will not be able to access assessment items (e.g., a student in a wheelchair cannot do the hopping item). There is a “Not Scorable” option for such situations. However, there is no alternative KRA, simply because of the universal design and the allowable supports for all children.
Children who are blind or visually impaired represent a wide range of sightedness. Thus, we created the Alternative Text Teacher Administration Manual, Tactile Graphics Assessment manual and concrete manipulatives to ensure accessibility for all children who are blind or visually impaired. You should follow the child’s instructional team recommendations for any or all supports on a child-by-child basis. You also should check student’s IEP for any accommodations and/or modifications. Please fill out this 2017 Kindergarten Readiness Assessment Alternative Text Test Order Form
to order the Alternative Text Test Administration Manual and materials.
Trained Proctors Administering KRA App Items
Teachers can find supports and resources about the KRA app by logging in to the KReady system
, in the PD content site, by clicking on Supports and Resources and then click on the KRA app tab on the navigation bar.
The Supports and Resources page also has updated information about the app, including Proctor Guidelines. The kindergarten teacher of record can train a resource teacher or paraeducator to administer some of the items of the KRA app. This "KRA App Proctor" does not need to complete the full KRA teacher training. Instead, the proctor must review and complete the proctor training contained in the Proctor Training and Guidelines document. This document is available and described more in detail in the Important Grab-n-Go Resources section
Schools can provide training to any school employee to be a proctor for the KRA app. This is to help the teacher with administering the assessment. Districts should not create KReady accounts for proctors. Teachers or principals can download the KRA App Proctor Guidelines and a certification form from the KRA PD site and give that to the proctor. The proctor then reads the guidelines document, takes the self-check/quiz (by paper), and signs a certification form. The principal and teacher also sign the certification form. The school or district stores the form as they follow other testing procedures.
The proctor guidelines document explains this in detail. Teachers log the proctor into the KRA App using the teacher’s username and password. Again, districts should NOT be creating KReady account for Proctors – it is not needed.
KRA Data and Reports
We understand the need for timely data and hope that the resources and enhancements to the system will support educators who are administering the KRA and using the data to inform instructional decisions for kindergarten students.
Results are available in the KReady system
to users with teacher, data manage, and administrator accounts.
How to Find KRA Data:
- KRA raw data is immediately available to teachers as they administer the items, and we recommend teachers use that as baseline data to inform kindergarten instruction based on the needs of the students.
- The Language and Literacy scale score reports are available to data managers and administrators before Nov. 1. This was a new feature during the 2016 administration and was available in late September. This report feature will continue through future administration windows.
- Scale score reports are available to data managers and administrators after the window closes. The system takes about a week to generate all the scores and go through testing before making the reports available to school districts. The scale score report will not be available during the administration window.
- In previous years, the Individual Student Reports (ISRs) were available at the same time as the scale score reports. This year the ISRs will be available on demand to teachers for students who have 100 percent item completion. Once a teacher has finished entering scores for all KRA items available for at least one student in the current data collection, he or she will then be able to generate the ISR score page. Teachers can generate the ISR score page by student or by entire class (all students assigned to them all at once). This process is available beginning Sept. 1.
School districts can find KRA data for 2015 and 2016 in the KReady system. The KRA Data Manager Guide
includes directions for retrieving data reports using the archive.
School districts can find KRA data for 2014 in the superintendent’s SAFE account in the Collaboration Center. We have provided Directions for Finding KRA Data on SAFE
Public access to KRA data is available in the Download Data tab on the Ohio School Reports Cards page. We also have provided Directions for Finding Released Ohio KRA Data
KRA Annual Reports
KRA Annual Report 2014-2015
- This report includes results from the FY15 administration of the Kindergarten Readiness Assessment in Ohio.
KRA Annual Report 2015-2016
- This report includes results from the FY16 administration of the Kindergarten Readiness Assessment in Ohio.
Understanding KRA Scale Scores
The scoring calculations are complex and scale scores cannot be calculated outside of the KReady system.
- The max score for every domain except Physical Well-Being and Motor Development is 298; the max score for that domain is 289.
- If a raw score is 0, the scaled score is 202.
- The overall max scaled score is 298.
- Any score in between the lowest and highest is calculated based on which questions the student answers. If a child scores between the lowest and highest points for the raw score, the scaled scores are estimated based on the difficulty of the questions, which questions the child answers/does not answer, which questions the child answered correctly and other calculations.
- The scoring process works by adding the raw points obtained by each student and converting the raw score to a scale score using lookup tables created with IRT-Rasch model.
You may find it beneficial to review and share the KRA Individual Student Report Explanation
guidance document found here
. The explanation document, as well as the ISR are resources to help understand the overall scores and the performance levels.
NOTE: Only the overall score determines the performance level. The Language and Literacy is the only area with the on-track
and not on-track
levels. You will see levels that will help you identify which students need support in reading right now. Scores of 263 or higher are on track. Scores of 262 or lower are not on track. There are three bands of performance based on the total of scores in all four areas:
Demonstrating Readiness 270-298
Approaching Readiness 258-269
Emerging Readiness 202-257
The assessment tool does not rank children by ability, nor does it identify students with disabilities or gifted students. Districts may use the KRA Language and Literacy area to meet the requirement of a reading diagnostic for the Third Grade Reading Guarantee. If used for the Third Grade Reading Guarantee, the KRA Language and Literacy area must be administered by Nov. 1. The Language and Literacy area cut score for on track
in reading is 263 (scaled-score) and above. If a student scores 262 or less on the Language and Literacy area, the child is not on track
for reading on grade level. This score is for the Language and Literacy sub-score only, not the composite score.
For more information
Kindergarten Readiness Assessment Website
KRA Help Desk: