Ohio’s Whole Child Framework and Initiatives
With Data Insights on Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports (PBIS) and Utilization of Restraint and Seclusion
The Ohio Department of Education is committed to providing safe and supportive schools to all students through the implementation of whole child supports. Research demonstrates that students do better academically, socially and behaviorally when supports are provided for the whole child within a school setting. A compelling amount of research indicates the use of restraint and seclusion in schools negatively impacts a student’s outcome for optimal learning. For that reason, the Department’s efforts to support the whole child include a focus on eliminating the use of restraint and seclusion.
Supporting the whole child is an integral part of Ohio’s 5-year strategic plan for education titled Each Child, Our Future. This plan identifies four equally important learning domains that support the holistic success of each child prekindergarten through grade 12 (preK‑12). These learning domains include foundational knowledge and skills, well-rounded content, leadership and reasoning, and social-emotional learning. Ohio’s strategic plan for education puts the whole child at the center, with each component of the plan working harmoniously to support this approach.
This report is organized in two parts:
- Part 1: Ohio’s Whole Child Framework and Initiatives, presents an overview of Ohio’s specific efforts to create safe and supportive school environments and eliminate the use of restraint and seclusion through multiple statewide initiatives; and
- Part 2: Data Insights on PBIS and Restraint and Seclusion in Schools, which addresses:
- Positive Behavior Interventions and Support implementation in schools; and
- Restraint and Seclusion utilization in schools. Ohio is a local-control state; school districts and locally elected school boards of education develop, publish, implement and monitor their own policy on the use of restraint and seclusion. Ohio Administrative Code 3301-35-15 requires districts to report information regarding their use of restraint and seclusion to the Department.
Part 1: Ohio’s Whole Child Framework
The Whole Child Framework is a blueprint schools can use to meet the mental, behavioral and physical health, wellness, nutrition and safety needs of Ohio students. A whole child approach broadens district and school focus beyond academics to include the many factors in a child’s life that impact the educational experience. The Whole Child Framework provides a guide to meet these whole child needs, which are foundational to a child’s intellectual and social development and necessary for students to fully engage in learning.
The five tenets of Ohio’s Whole Child Framework reflect desired student conditions that lead to success in life and learning. These tenets recognize that students’ basic physiological and psychological needs must be met before they can fully engage in complex learning and social activities. When students are healthy, feel safe, are supported through strong systems and relationships, are challenged and experience success and are engaged in learning that is relevant and meaningful, they are more likely to enjoy learning, develop positive social skills and achieve greater success.
The Office of Whole Child Supports coordinates and leads the Department’s efforts to develop the policies, programs, guidance and resources that support the implementation of Ohio’s Whole Child Framework. Each of the initiatives and resources below represents a critical piece of the collaborative approach to learning and wellness within Ohio’s Whole Child Framework.
The Ohio Association of Student Leaders and the Ohio Department of Education hosted student-led roundtable discussions on Ohio's Whole Child Framework. Student voice is critical to implementing effective whole child supports. Students in grades 6 through 12 participate in roundtable discussions to share how schools are supporting them to be healthy, safe, engaged, supported and challenged, as well as what additional supports are needed and how to bring information back to their schools.
Safe and Supportive School Environments
Students thrive and learn best in safe and supportive learning environments. The components of a safe and supportive learning environment include creating a positive school climate and culture, addressing students’ emotional and physical safety and ensuring the school’s physical environment and grounds are safe. Promoting and supporting staff wellness and self-care is also an important component to help ensure students’ academic success and overall well-being.
Ohio's 133rd General Assembly enacted House Bill 123, the "Safety and Violence Education Students (SAVE Students) Act," regarding education and training for school security and youth suicide awareness. The state legislation calls for a comprehensive approach to school safety involving the departments of Education, Public Safety and Mental Health and Addiction Services and the Attorney General’s Office. Schools, families and communities must work together and take a comprehensive approach to school safety. This includes meeting the physical and emotional safety of both students and educators. When implemented together, prevention education, peer-led clubs, emergency management plans and threat assessments can create safe, caring learning and work environments for all students. The Department of
Education, the Department of Public Safety and the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services will maintain a list of approved training programs which meet specified criteria.
Ohio further supports school safety by offering free, evidence-based school violence prevention trainings to school personnel and students statewide using Bureau of Justice Assistance grant funding allocated through the STOP School Violence Act. Ohio Revised Code 3313.669 requires schools to create threat assessment teams for each building serving students grades six through twelve. Safety Assessment & Intervention, one of Sandy Hook Promise’s proven Know the Signs programs is offered and includes day‑long workshops that cover the theory of threat assessment and practical applications for district threat assessment teams.
Trauma Informed Schools
A trauma informed school is one in which all students and staff feel safe, welcomed and supported, and where the impact of trauma on teaching and learning is addressed at the center of the educational mission. The Department recognizes the impact trauma can have in the lives of students and has developed a Trauma Informed Schools webpage with information and resources to support schools in planning and implementing trauma informed approaches. The Department also facilitates a Trauma Informed Schools Committee, a collaboration with the Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services, community mental health agencies, hospitals and local education agencies. The group convenes monthly to discuss implementation strategies, challenges and current research surrounding trauma informed practices and schools in Ohio.
The Department hosted its first Trauma Informed Schools Conference on Nov. 7, 2020. This free, virtual event included keynote speakers and learning sessions for educators and community partners. This event was attended by 947 educators and community partners.
Working with partner organizations, the Department collaborated with the Ohio Center for Autism and Low Incidence (OCALI) for their annual OCALICON conference. Over 150 educators attended sessions with topics about staff and student regulation, fostering resilience and strategies to improve mental health in adolescents. Additionally, the Department supported the Ohio Department of Mental Health and Addiction Service’s Trauma Informed Care Summit in May 2021. The Department provided funding through its federal School Climate Transformation Grant to support this event and promoted it through the weekly education newsletter to Ohio districts and schools, culminating in over 100 educators attending the summit.
The Department also joined with the Ohio Center for Autism and Low Incidence (OCALI) to develop a video series with resources related to PBIS. One video in the series, Expanding PBIS to Address the Needs of the Whole Child provides a brief introduction to external factors, such as trauma, that can impact a child’s ability to learn in the classroom. Viewers will learn how they can support the needs of the whole child through trauma informed practices and building protective factors and engaging with community partners. The series is on the Department’s Learning Management System.
Mental and Behavioral Health Supports
The Department provides professional development, technical assistance and resources to support schools in developing comprehensive mental health systems. Effective mental health systems provide a continuum of supports and services addressing mental health promotion, early intervention and treatment. The Department collaborates with the Ohio Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services on several initiatives focused on efforts between schools and community partners to create safe and supportive schools and improve the mental and behavioral health of students, families and school staff. Through this partnership, statewide resources and trainings are available to school staff, families and community partners. Several initiatives have been developed and supported through this collaboration, including mental and behavioral health supports developed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
- Health and Well-being Webpage: Released at the start of the 2020-2021 school year, this page provides practical ideas and easy steps for parents and caregivers to support their child’s well-being during the pandemic, including mental and behavioral health supports.
- Student and Staff Well-being Toolkit: This toolkit was designed to explore the mental health and behavioral considerations districts and schools may reflect upon while planning and implementing supports during the pandemic. The toolkit covers multiple topics including staff self-care, trauma-informed practices and suicide prevention and intervention.
- ABCs of Mental Health: This is a resource for educators who may be feeling the weight of new expectations along with heightened health and safety concerns. Developed by Ohio’s leading suicide prevention experts with teachers, administrators and school staff specifically in mind, the ABCs of Mental Health guides school staff to: Ask yourself how you are feeling; Be aware of signs and symptoms of mental health challenges; and Care for yourself and others.
- Youth & Adults Mental Health and Wellness Outreach | Ohio Department of Education: This webpage offers resources that can help both children and adults to cope, heal, strengthen and grow, providing access to resources and tools needed to support an appropriate awareness campaign. Each initiative has a built-in education and stigma-reduction component aimed at changing attitudes and strengthening supports for those in need. The toolkits include downloadable educational resources, including videos, for parents and educators.
- School-based Mental Health Professionals Initiative: Funded through the U.S. Department of Education, this initiative brings together local educational service centers, universities’ community mental health providers and districts to plan and implement recruitment and retainment strategies to increase the number of school-based mental health professionals providing mental health services to students and families in seven of Ohio’s Appalachian counties (Belmont, Guernsey, Harrison, Morgan, Muskingum, Noble and Tuscarawas).
- Ohio School Wellness Initiative: The Ohio Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services and Miami University’s Center for School-Based Mental Health Programs are working to support districts and schools in increasing substance use and mental health supports and services for students through capacity development, connection to community partners and services and implementation of the full continuum of care including prevention, early intervention and treatment practice for K-12 students throughout Ohio.
Prevention Education Efforts
The purpose of prevention-focused programs, services and supports is to help students develop knowledge and skills to engage in healthy behaviors and decision-making, to increase their awareness of the dangers and consequences of risky behaviors and to prevent substance use, suicide and bullying.
Prevention-focused programs, services and supports can be integrated into efforts already practiced by schools. This can be done through schoolwide expectations, prevention-focused curriculum or after-school activities. Like PBIS, prevention education is a multi-tiered approach to supporting students.
- Tier I strategies, also known as universal prevention, are offered to all students and focus on developing knowledge and skills to engage in healthy behaviors and decision-‑making.
- Tier II and Tier III strategies, known as selective and indicated prevention, are implemented as needed to support students with increased risk factors.
When prevention services are provided through the PBIS framework, staff and students create a safe and supportive learning environment, students are more likely to engage in learning and each student receives the supports they need to gain skills for success in school and life.
Under the leadership of Ohio Governor Mike DeWine, the Fiscal Year 2020-2021 biennial budget included funding to support prevention services and prevention education professional development for educators. Through this investment, Ohio’s districts and schools were able to address the continuum of student needs through prevention, early intervention and intervention services.
- K-12 Prevention Initiative: Districts and schools assess prevention needs and provide evidence-informed prevention-education services for all students in all grades. These funds are coordinated through the Ohio Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services and county alcohol, drug addiction and mental health boards.
- Prevention Education Professional Development: Funding is provided to build the capacity of educational service centers to train educators and related service personnel on the model and tenets of prevention education. These funds are coordinated through the Ohio Department of Education and select educational service centers. The prevention education webpage expands upon the work and partnerships with the Ohio Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services, as well as overall prevention efforts by the Department.
Through continued collaboration between the Departments of Education and Mental Health and Addiction Services, additional resources, supports and opportunities will be available to expand prevention education for students throughout Ohio.
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)
Ohio rule requires districts to implement Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on a system-wide basis and adds requirements for districts to provide professional development on PBIS for school personnel. Supported by legislative mandates, the Department is committed to continue building statewide capacity to implement PBIS1.
PBIS is a multi-tiered system of supports that utilizes instructional practices to teach students what behaviors are expected in the various school settings throughout the school day. A well‑implemented PBIS framework provides instructional supports to all students, additional small-group interventions for some students and, when needed, individual behavioral planning for a few students. PBIS involves all school staff and requires consistency among adults. When properly implemented, PBIS has been shown to reduce discipline incidents and improve overall school climate.
Building State, Regional and Local Capacity for PBIS
Through the U.S. Department of Education’s School Climate Transformation Grant, the Department and regional designees are working to build Ohio’s PBIS training and coaching capacity. This grant operates through September 2023 and focuses on increasing the number of PBIS master trainers within the State Support Teams and Educational Service Centers, improving coordination of resources, incorporating opioid abuse prevention and mitigation strategies (including trauma informed practices) and integrating culturally responsive practices into the PBIS framework.
Ohio’s School Climate Transformation Grant supported the creation of new PBIS video resources created with the Ohio Center for Autism and Low Incidence. The following videos are available on the Department’s learning management system to support PBIS training.
- The Tiered Fidelity Inventory (TFI) video which leverages the State Support Team PBIS consultants’ work, PBIS Apps, the Self-Assessment Survey, virtual TFIs for school districts during the pandemic, interviews and a model of the TFI walkthrough;
- The Data Collection and Analysis video which identifies trends and root causes, data interpretation, how to disaggregate data and consider the impact of race, ethnicity and disability, and how to determine what interventions to apply; and
- The Expanding PBIS to Address the Needs of the Whole Child video which explores how PBIS, as a framework, can align with other initiatives that support the whole child, such as social and emotional learning, trauma informed practices, health behaviors and decision making. Community partnerships are also featured in this video.
The Department also supports local capacity by hosting an annual Ohio PBIS Showcase that provides an opportunity for attendees to acquire firsthand knowledge on PBIS implementation. Schools that implement PBIS with a high degree of consistency and fidelity are eligible to be recognized as a PBIS award school (gold, silver or bronze levels). In 2020, 355 schools and districts received recognition. The Showcase features award-winning and high-quality PBIS school programs sharing their knowledge, experiences and resources in implementing and scaling-up their PBIS efforts, including training on PBIS coaching strategies.
Updates to the Rule: Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports and Restraint and Seclusion
Ohio rule for the Implementation of Positive Behavior Intervention Supports and the Use of Restraint and Seclusion went into effect at the beginning of the 2013-2014 school year. The purpose of the rule is to ensure Ohio school districts establish consistent policies and procedures for the use of PBIS and emergency restraint and seclusion. The intent is to create safe environments for students and staff and reduce the need for emergency physical restraint and seclusion through behavior supports and training. The rule was revised in June 2021. Revisions to the rule include additional definitions, new training and professional development requirements and a formal complaint process for restraint and seclusion through the Department. The Department amended existing resources and developed new resources and tools to increase awareness and understanding of the revisions. These resources can be found on the Department’s PBIS webpage and restraint and seclusion webpage.
Part 2: Data insights on Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports (PBIS) and Restraint and Seclusion in Schools
The following information highlights state-level data points related to the implementation of PBIS and the use of physical restraint and seclusion in schools.2 To ensure accurate reporting, the Department collects data about the implementation of PBIS and incidents of restraint and seclusion at the school-building level. As is best practice in continuous improvement science, the Department encourages schools and districts to constantly consider effective ways to collect, analyze and use their data to set goals and drive improvement.
PBIS implementation is reported through the Education Management Information System (EMIS). Restraint and seclusion incidents are reported through the annual Restraint and Seclusion Survey. The Restraint and Seclusion Survey is provided to Ohio districts and schools that serve students in grades K-12. These include public districts; community schools; joint vocational or cooperative education schools; Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) schools; State School for the Deaf; State School for the Blind; and Educational Service Centers (ESCs). Data collected from individual school buildings enable the Department to provide targeted support and technical assistance in the following ways:
- Ensure all districts have adopted a policy for the implementation of PBIS and the use of restraint and seclusion.
- Develop statewide resources and tools to support districts and schools with PBIS implementation and restraint and seclusion reduction efforts.
- Provide targeted training and coaching through State Support Teams and Educational Service Centers.
Impact of COVID-19 and School Building Closures on Data
On March 12, 2020, all of Ohio’s traditional public schools, community schools and private K-12 school buildings were ordered to be closed to students due to the ongoing COVID-19 health crisis. At the start of the 2020-2021 school year, school buildings were permitted to reopen while following specific health guidelines. Data Insights: Evidence of the Pandemic’s Impact on Students in 2020-2021 details the significant impact COVID-19 had on student enrollment and student attendance. The total preK-12 enrollment during the 2020-2021 school year decreased by approximately three percent (about 53,000 students). Many students likely delayed enrollment or enrolled in other educational options; Ohio’s homeschool enrollment increased by 55% (approximately 18,000 students). There also was a notable increase in chronic absenteeism (18 days (10% of the school year) or more of excused or unexcused time not engaged in education activity). In 2020-2021, 24% of Ohio’s K-12 students – almost 380,000 students – were chronically absent. The reduction in student enrollment and attendance for the 2020-2021 school year must be considered when reviewing the restraint and seclusion data. The reductions in incidents of restraint and seclusion are more likely correlated to the reductions of enrollment and attendance and may not reflect progress due to statewide reduction efforts in the use of restraint and seclusion.
Increase in District Response Rate
The 2020-2021 restraint and seclusion survey collected responses from over 99% of the 1,031 school districts. The issuance of the data collection in the summer continues to demonstrate an increase in the response rate from all school types (public districts, community schools, STEM schools, state supported schools and educational service centers). The Department hopes to continue seeing a high response rate in coming years.
Policies in Place
Ohio rule requires school districts to have written policies and procedures concerning the use of PBIS and restraint and seclusion that are consistent with the rule. For the second consecutive year, all responding districts have adopted policies. Following the rule revision, an updated model policy has been added to the Department’s website which districts can adopt or adapt as desired.
Ohio rule also states school districts will annually review the language of the rule and the district’s PBIS and restraint and seclusion policies and procedures with district staff. Additionally, districts will provide an annual notice to parents about the district’s policy and procedures specific to PBIS and the use of restraint and seclusion, including the district’s complaint process to address parents’ concerns.
Planning and Implementation of PBIS
PBIS is a multi-tiered, schoolwide, behavioral framework developed and implemented for the purpose of improving academic and social outcomes and increasing learning for all students.3
PBIS training for PBIS Leadership Teams4 is a multi-session, team-based process with follow-‑up coaching support. Properly implementing the PBIS Framework requires a multiyear commitment from a participating school. In addition to the PBIS training provided to the PBIS Leadership Teams, the revised rule establishes districts will provide student personnel5 professional development on the implementation of PBIS at least every three years. The PBIS Professional Development Guidance explains the requirements and provides helpful recommendations to assist districts in planning the professional development.
- Work on implementing PBIS has not yet begun.
- Exploration and Adoption – Researching PBIS, exploring readiness and securing staff and administration agreement to implement PBIS.
- Installation – Creating the PBIS team, completing PBIS team training and establishing initial systems, data-decisions, policies and practices that will be required to implement PBIS.
- Initial Implementation – Rolling out and implementing PBIS schoolwide, with a focus on Tier I supports.
- Full Implementation – Implementing PBIS with all systemic components and a range of interventions, known as Tier I, II and III supports.
- Innovation and Sustainability – Routinely checking fidelity and outcomes of implementation using national assessments and revising and updating practices and systems as needed.
Each stage has specific steps and associated actions. While the stages, steps and actions suggest a linear sequence of events, in actual implementation there often is a more dynamic flow to the work. Some stages or steps may be occurring simultaneously, and the work often circles back to revisit earlier stages. The data enable the Department to identify schools and districts that should be recognized or ones that could use additional resources or training.
Figure 1 demonstrates that a higher percentage of respondents have reached PBIS Full Implementation or the Innovation and Sustainability phase for school year 2021-2022 compared to the previous school year. Over half (54.6%) of all responding districts and schools have now achieved full implementation.
Trauma-Informed Care Data Outcomes
Applying a trauma-informed lens, crisis intervention teams work to understand how trauma impacts behavior, strive to reduce trauma triggers that can escalate a crisis situation and make every effort to avoid retraumatizing students and staff. Trauma informed practices help students and staff regulate emotions which contributes to de-escalation and the reduction of restraint and seclusion incidents.
As of the 2018-2019 school year, the Department uses the annual restraint and seclusion data survey to identify the number of schools providing trauma informed care training. Trauma informed care training decreased within school buildings from 82% in the 2019-2020 school year to 77% in the 2020-2021 school year. This decline was anticipated due to COVID-19 health mandates that limited gatherings and significantly reduced the number of face-to-face trainings and professional development provided to school staff. The Department is encouraged that the shift to virtual trainings will allow more districts to receive trauma informed care training which is highly needed for the 2021-2022 school year. The Department has multiple resources in place to assist districts and schools with implementing trauma informed care practices.
Reported Incidents of Restraint and Seclusion
Physical Restraint is defined as the use of physical contact in a way that immobilizes or reduces the ability of an individual to move the individual’s arms, legs, body or head freely.7 The term does not include a physical escort, mechanical restraint or chemical restraint. Additionally, physical restraint does not include brief physical contact to break up a fight, to knock a weapon out of a student’s possession, to calm or comfort a student, to assist a student in completing a task or response if the student does not resist the contact, or to prevent an imminent risk to a student or others.
Seclusion is defined as the involuntary isolation of a student in a room, enclosure or space from which the student is prevented from leaving by physical restraint or by a closed door or other physical barrier.8
Crisis management, de-escalation techniques and less restrictive interventions should always be used to reduce the need to use restraint or seclusion.
As mentioned at the beginning of this section, reductions in incidents of restraint and seclusion for the 2020-2021 school year are likely correlated to the reductions of enrollment and attendance and may not truly demonstrate reductions in the use of restraint and seclusion based on successful implementation of preventative approaches. For the 2020-2021 school year, less than 1% of the 1,663,975 students enrolled in Ohio’s schools were involved in an incident of restraint and seclusion. Additionally, 79% of Ohio’s 3,577 schools reported no incidents of restraint and 92% reported no incidents of seclusion.
Themes of Restraint and Seclusion Data
- Decrease of Reported Incidents of Restraint and Seclusion
Data collected between the 2018-2019 and 2020-2021 school years show a decrease in the number of incidents of restraint and seclusion (see Figure 2). The Department anticipated a large decrease in incidents of restraint and seclusion for the 2020-2021 school year as many schools were operating in a virtual or hybrid setting. Although reported numbers were significantly lower than previous school years, the Department continues to closely monitor reported incidents of restraint and seclusion and to provide additional training and resources to school buildings and districts.
- Students with Disabilities Experience More Incidents of Restraint and Seclusion
Data collected continues to confirm that students identified as a child with a disability under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and have an individualized education program (IEP) experience more incidents of restraint and seclusion than their peers, despite representing a much smaller portion of total enrollment. Figure 2 provides a detailed look at this statement.
- Students with the Disability Category of Emotional Disturbance have more Occurrences of Restraint and Seclusion
Students identified with a disability in the category of Emotional Disturbance are restrained and secluded at higher rates than other disability categories. Students in this category represent only 5.5% of all students with disabilities, yet they represent 37% of the restraint incidents with students with disabilities. This is followed by students with Autism and Multiple Disabilities. See Figure 3.
|Incidents of Restraint and Seclusion Per Disability Category 2020-21
||% of Students in the disability category overall
||% Restrained by category
||% Secluded by category
|Emotional Disturbance (ED)
Other Health Impaired (Minor and Major)
(other than Deaf-Blind)
|Specific Learning Disabilities
- Districts Increased Supports and Decreased Suspension and Expulsion Following Incidents of Restraint and Seclusion
The Department also uses the annual restraint and seclusion data to explore outcomes associated with incidents of restraint and seclusion. The data show continual increases in school teams creating or amending a functional behavioral assessment (FBA) or behavior intervention plan (BIP) in response to an incident of restraint or seclusion. The data also show decreases in the rate of suspensions following an incident of restraint or seclusion. This aligns with Ohio’s efforts to proactively reduce exclusionary discipline practices, especially in prekindergarten through grade three as outlined in Ohio law. Figures 4 and 5 provide further details.
The Department continues to prioritize its commitment to reduce the use of restraint and seclusion across the state. Guided by the data collected through the annual restraint and seclusion report, the Department will continue to provide additional technical assistance, professional development and resources to support districts in creating safe and supportive school environments.
- Information Sessions About the Revised Rule Throughout the 2021-2022 school year, the Department will provide informational sessions on the revised rule to inform districts, schools, parents and partnering organizations about the updated requirements regarding PBIS and restraint and seclusion. During these sessions, the Department will highlight newly developed resources including:
- Roll Out of PBIS Video Series
The Department joined with the Ohio Center for Autism and Low Incidence (OCALI) to develop three video series with a focus on Tiered Fidelity Inventory (TFI), Data Collection and Analysis and Expanding PBIS to Address the Needs of the Whole Child. Each video provides in-depth information and resources about the important components of PBIS. The series is posted on the Department’s Learning Management System
- Investigate Alleged Violations of the Rule
Authorized through the revised rule
, the Department has a newly implemented formal complaint process for restraint and seclusion. Parents can submit a complaint to the Department to investigate potential violations of the rule (sections G through K). If violations are found, the Department works with Districts to provide technical assistance to achieve compliance in the required components. The Department will track patterns identified from complaints and will use this information to inform resource development and technical assistance. Information about the complaint process
can be found on the restraint and seclusion webpage
In response to the increased need in schools surrounding mental health, safety and wellness across Ohio, the Departments of Education and Mental Health and Addiction Services collaborated to create a wellness toolkit for administrators, educators and families.
1 ORC 3319.46
Analyses include all responding districts unless otherwise noted.
3 ORC 3319.46
PBIS Leadership Team means the assigned team at the district and building level that plans, coaches and monitors PBIS implementation in the district and building.
Student personnel means teacher, principal, counselor, social worker, school resource officer, teachers’ aide, psychologist, bus driver, related services providers, nursing staff or other school district staff who interact directly with students.
Lewis, T.J., Barrett, S., Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H., Mitchell, B.S., & Starkey, D. (2016). Training and professional development blueprint for positive behavioral interventions and supports. Eugene, OR: national Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavior Interventions and Support. Retrieved from www.pbis.org. For assistance with implementing PBIS in your district/building, please contact the State Support Team located in your district’s region.
7 OAC 3301-35-15(A)(9)
8 OAC 3301-35-15(A)(14)
Last Modified: 6/3/2022 4:49:24 PM